ISO TR 17243-2:2017 download

05-20-2021 comment

ISO TR 17243-2:2017 download.Machine tool spindles — Evaluation of spindle vibrations by measurements on non-rotating parts — Part 2: Direct-driven spindles and belt-driven spindles with rolling element bearings operating at speeds between 600 r/ mm and 30000 r/min.
1 Scope
ISO TR 17243 provides information on how to assess the severity of machine tool spindle vibrations measured on the spindle housing. It gives specifc guidance for assessing the severity of vibration measured on the spindle housing at customer sites or at the machine tool manufacturer’s test facilities.
Its vibration criteria apply to direct-driven spindles and belt-driven spindles intended for stationary machine tools with nominal operating speeds between 600 r/mln and 30000 r/mln.
It Is applicable to those spindles of the rolling clement bearing types only, to spindles assembled on metal cutting machine tools, and for testing, periodic verification, arid continuous monitoring.
It does not address
— geometrical accuracy of axes of rotation (see ISO 230-7),
— unacceptable cutting performance with regards to surface finish and accuracy.
— vibration severity issues of machine tool spindles operating at speeds below 600 r/min or exceeding 30 000 r/min (due to lack olsupporting vibration data and limitations in many vibration measurement instruments), or
— frequency domain analyses such as fast Fourier transform (FF1’) analyses, envelope analyses or other similar techniques.
Annex A presents an introduction to alternative bearing condition assessment techniques.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to In the text In such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 1925, Mechar,ical vibration — Balancing — Vocabulary
ISO 2041. Mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring — Vocabulary
ISO 2954, Mechanvcal vibration of rotatrng and reciprocatrng machinery — Requirements foc instruments for measuring vibration severity
ISO 13372, Condition monito.rlng and diagnostics of machines — Vocabulary
belt-driven spindle
spindle where the power transmission is achieved by i belt between the drive motor and the spindle
direct-driven spindle
nachine tool spindle in a motor•coupllng.splndle configuration with no belts, gears, or other power U’artsmlttlng elements In the power train
gear-driven spindle
iiachine tool spindle with one or more power transmitting gear units in the power train
4ote Ito entry; Gear-driven sp,ndles nay also Incorporate coupling and/or beits In the power train.
spindle with Integral drive
spindle unit where the rotor of the drive motor is the rotor of the spindle
short term
<spindle condition monitoring> time period of six months or shorter
4oe Ito entry: Time periods may differ br peciFk spind Ic types and/or operational conditions.
Long term
<spindle condition monitoring> time period of longer than six months
‘4ote Ito entry: Time period may ditfr. for specilic spindle types and/or operational conditions.
machine condition monitoring
detection, collection, and Interpretation of information and data that indicate the spindle condition (1w) ola machine tool spindle
spindle condition
oot-mean.square (r.m.s) values for vibration velocity and acceleration of machine tool spindles as defined by specifications
short-tenn spindle condition
arameter Indicating the condition of a machine tool spindle in the short term (15)
4.4 Thermal conditions
Thermal conditions will need to be agreed upon between manufacturer/supplier and user. If no conditions are specified, the tests should be made under conditions as near as possible to those of normal operation with regards to lubrication and warm-up. Therefore, the machine should have an idle running performance in accordance with the conditions of use and the instructions of the manufacturer until the machine/spindle has reached steady-state operating temperature. Refer to Iso 230-I for the installation of the machine before testing and warming up of the spindle and other moving components.
4.5 Spindle position and orientation
Spindle position: ISO TR 17243 is applicable for all possible linear axis positions.
Spindle orientation: ISO TR 17243 is applicable for all possible spindle orientations.
Spindle direction of rotation: For spindles that can he operated in either direction, this document applies to both clockwise and counter clockwise spindle rotation.
Spindle position, orientation, and direction of rotation for vibration measurements will need to be agreed upon between manufacturer/supplier and user.
4.6 Tool or workpiece balancing
4.6.1 General
A tool or workpiece mounted in the spindle might influence the vibration measurements due to the unbalance of the tool or workpiece itself. It should be recorded whether or not a tool/workpiece is used during the measurements. If used, the mass, balancing grade according to ISO 21940-11 and angular orientation (if applicable) of tool/workpiece used during vibration measurements should be recorded.
4.6.2 Spindle vibration measurements with a tool/workplece mounted In the spindle
Care should be taken to avoid errors introduced by the unbalance of the tool/workpiece. For most machine tools/spindles this implies that a balance quality grade of G2.5 or better according to ISO 21940-11:2016 is required. If possible the same tool/workpiece should be used breach measurement of the same machine tool/spindle. If available, refer to the spindle manufacturer’s recommendations.
4.7 Spindle chuck
Spindle chuck mechanical settings — such as chuck front-end position with respect to spindle gauge
line for clamped and unclamped positions — as well as jaw positions, should be recorded.
4.8 Spindle cooling
The spindle cooling system settings should be set appropriately and the performance confirmed. All
settings should be recorded.
4.9 Drawbar
The drawbar status should be recorded as tool clamped, tool unclamped, or tool improperly clamped. It is recommended that all spindle vibration measurements be performed with tool clamped or without tool. Refer to 4..f.
4.10 Background vibration
lithe measured vibration magnitude is greater than an acceptance criterion established by mutual agreement between the manufacturer/supplier and user, and background vibration is suspected, measurements should be made with the machine shut down to determine the degree of external Influence. If the vibration magnitude with the machine shut down exceeds 10 % of the value measured when the machine is running, corrective action might be necessary to reduce the effect of background vibration.
NOTE In some cases, the effect of background vibration can be nullified by spectrum analysis or by eliminating the offending external source.
4.11 Idle operation
It can be beneficial to conduct vibration measurements with the spindle idle but other machine tool systems, such as pumps, fans, and hydraulic systems, active, Vibration data acquired this way can be useful when comparing spindle vibration changes over time.
The two radial measurement directions should be perpendicular to each other and coincide with the movement axes of the machine tool, such as X and Y or any other axes defined by ISO 841. Refer to Figurel for examples on common machine types.
For some machine tool designs, other measurement directions might be preferred.
It is recommended that the vibration sensor be placed at the preferred measurement locations of Figu.rel. For periodic measurements where the main interest is in observing changes in the vibration related parameters over time, a single tn-axial sensor is a valid solution. In this last case, a fixed threaded installation of the vibration sensor (see 5.3) is suggested to ensure measurement repeatability.
All sensor locations/directions used for vibration measurements should be recorded.
Alternatively, permanently mounted vibration sensors on the spindle housing could he used.
5.2.2 Naming convention for measurement locations
Direct-driven spindles and belt-driven spindles covered by this document are used in many ditterent machine tool types and applications. Therefore, no obvious naming convention exists for assigning names to the measurement locations/directions.
The nomenclature is according to ISO 841 when referring to directions coinciding with movement axes of machine types covered by that International Standard. Possible measurement location names are
— Spindle front end X-, and
— Spindle back end Y
In any case where measurement location/direction names could be misinterpreted, additional data should be supplied (i.e. a simple drawing).
6 Evaluation parameters
6.1 Vibration velocity parameter
6.1.1 General
The vibration velocity parameter is measured as the broadband vibration magnitude in mm/s r.m.s typically within the frequency range of 10 Hz to 5 kHz.
The vibration velocity parameter can be used as an indication of long term spindle condition (LTSC).
The vibration velocity is selected because it has been found to reflect long term machine condition in a very consistent manner. It is also the preferred parameter in other machine condition related International Standards such as ISO 10816-3L1ll and References [1.81. 119] and 1201.
Even if the LTSC parameter is very low, spindle lifetime can be shortened dramatically by inappropriate working conditions.
The typical frequency range of 10 Hz to S klIz ensures that low frequency vibrations from building movements, etc. are removed from the signal hut still any unbalance vibration (1 x running speed) from a 600 r/min spindle would be within the selected frequency band. On the high end, the 5 kHz upper frequency limit allows for multiple speed harmonics (as would be produced by, for example, a loosely mounted spindle) on a 30 000 r/min spindle to be reflected in the evaluation parameter. Other frequency ranges can be used and the used frequency range should be recorded.
6.1.2 Spindles with maximum speed between 6 000 r/min and 30 000 r/min
For spindles operating at speeds between 6 000 r/rnin and 30 000 r/min, typically, one or two speed ranges may be excluded with respect to the LTSC parameter. This is due to the fact that most such spindle designs exhibit at least one resonance speed within the nominal operating speed range of the spindle (see Figure 2). ApplyIng the LTSC parameter at the resonance speeds of a spindle might be considered an unrealistic demand leading to costly design changes for new machine tools.
7 Spindle classification
7.1 General
Spindles covered by ISO TR 17243 are divided with respect to the following:
— rated power;
— maximum speed of spindle;
— bearing type.
7.2 Classification according to rated power
Direct-driven spindles and belt-driven spindles are divided into
— spindles with rated powers 5 kW, and
— spindles with rated power> 5 kW.
7.3 Classification according to maximum spindle speed
Four speed ranges are defined, with respect to spindle maximum speed, expressed in r/min:
Speed range 1. Sri 600 < Sri s 6 000;
Speed range 2, srz 6 000 <sr 12 000;
Speed range 3. sr 12 000 <sr s 18 000;
Speed range 4, sr 18 000 <sr4 s 30 000.
Spindle speed only affects the vibration evaluation zone boundaries for STSC (vibration acceleration) and does not affect the zone boundaries for the LTSC (vibration velocity).
8 Evaluation
8.1 General
8.1.1 Overview
Both I.TSC (vibration velocity) and STSC (vibration acceleration) are addressed.
The criteria apply to measurements at the customer’s, as well as tests at the manufacturer’s, test facilities, with the spindle mounted in the machine tool. They apply to broadband measurements taken on the spindle housing during steady-state operating conditions with no load (no cutting) and within the nominal speed range. Testing, periodic measurements, as well as continuous monitoring when measurements are taken without load are covered.
If measurement results are suspected to be influenced by signals not coming from the spindle itself, an analysis in the frequency domain, e.g. fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, envelope analysis, or other similar techniques, is useful. However, these analyses are outside the scope of this document.
The evaluation zones have been established by the extensive experience of several large multinational companies over a period of more than 15 years, covering a significant number of machines.
Numerical values assigned to the zone boundaries defined in Figure 3 are not intended to serve as acceptance specifications, which should be subject to agreement between the machine/spindle manufacturer/supplier and user. However, these values provide guidelines for ensuring that gross deficiencies or unrealistic requirements are avoided. In certain cases, there might be specific features associated with a particular machine/spindle design which would require different zone boundaries. For example, on low rigidity machine tools or on a long spindle with flange at the rear, higher vibration magnitudes can be measured; considering a given spindle condition. Consequently, the monitoring thresholds could be increased in that case. It is recommended that the manufacturer explain the reasons for different zone boundaries, especially if the zone boundaries are to be set at greater values than those recommended by this document.
When the vibration magnitude exceeds the alarm value, remedial actions are necessary.
It is recommended that the alarm value not normally exceed 1,25 times the upper limit of zone B.
8.6.4 Setting of the threshold for shutdown
The values for the threshold for shutdown generally relate to the mechanical integrity of the machine/spindle and are thus dependent on any specific design features which have been introduced to enable the machine to withstand abnormal dynamic forces. Therefore, the values will generally be the same for all machines/spindles of similar design and would not normally be related to the steady-state baseline used for setting alarms.
However, there might be differences for machine tools of different design and it is not possible to give clear guidelines on an absolute threshold for shutdown values. In general, the value for the threshold for shutdown will be within zone C or zone D, but it is recommended that the value for the threshold for shutdown not exceed 1,25 times the upper limit of zone C.
It should be noted that abnormal events such as spindle crashes might instantly lead to vibration values exceeding the zone C limit. In order to safely detect such events, vibration measurements need to be done with very short time intervals or with continuous vibration monitoring.
When the vibration magnitude exceeds the threshold for shutdown, immediate remedial actions are required.

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