ISO 4:1997 download.Information and documentation — Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications.
The rules contained herein are applicable to the abbreviation of the titles of serials and, if appropriate, of non-serial publications. They are intended to guide and assist authors, editors, librarians, and others working in various fields of information transfer in preparing unambiguous abbreviations for the titles of publications cited, for example, in footnotes, references and bibliographies. Such citations include those produced by abstracting and indexing services, lists of references accompanying articles, and public or private files where document identification is a concern.
Owing to the large number of different serial and non-serial publications subject to reference by abbreviated citation, the many different languages in which they are published, the different ways ot recording them and the widely diversified backgrounds of persons using title abbreviations, it is not possible to set down rules that will in every instance assure unassisted reconstruction of the original titles of the publications cited in abbreviated form. As one way to facilitate this identification, authors and editors who make extensive use of title abbreviations in their pubhcations are urged to make available to their readers, at frequent intervals, lists of the abbreviated titles they use, with corresponding equivalent unabbreviated titles.
The basic principle underlying ISO 4 is that each title should have its own unique abbreviation. This is to be achieved through application of the rules provided by ISO 4 in conjunction with a list of standardized title word abbreviations. It is recognized that for international information exchange an international system for the establishment of unique title abbreviations of serials is also necessary. By this arrangement, no two titles will have identical abbreviations, nor will a single abbreviation represent more than one title.
ISO 4 gives rules for ebbisviaihig tales of canals and, if approprmt,. non-serial documents It’ languages using the Latin, Cynulic and Greek alphabets ISO 4 also seives as the basis faiths esiabhshrnent of title word abbreviations by the ISSN Network.
For the purposes of ISO 4, the following delw’iitlons apply.
2.1 abbreviatIon: Abbreviated term reeuitWig I ram the omission of some of its letters. (Adapted from
22 abbrevl.I.d qualifyIng element. Abbreviated element erkfed to en abbreviated bite in under to make the abbreviated title uflique
2.3 acronym: Abbreviated cOmplex term made up of letters fran, the full form of a term and strung together into a sequence pronounced onty syllabically. (ISO 1087:1990)
EXALt P1 F’ Al (0L algonthrwc kngiiage
2.4 affix: tiforpheme which is neither a stem not wi endng but which is attached to the stem in order to change Its meaning or its lexical or grammatical category. (ISO 1087:1990)
2.5 art dicial word Word created (or a special purpose and not normally found in dictionaries
2.6 compI. term Term consisting of two or more sterna with ot without ether term elernenls
2.7 compound word Word whose component paris are themselves words or contined tories.
2.8 contractIon: Shortening of a word, syllable, or word groL4, by orression of internal letters.
2.9 corporal, body. Organization or group of persons dentif red by a particular name.
2.10 derIvative: Word tetmd by the addition of one or more affixes to a stern (ISO 1081:19901
2.11 generic term Word or a gro of words in a title that indicate the kind andior trequericy of a publication.
EXAMPLES: Aohanlurrgen, arinales, Benctite. bulletin, cahier. annual report. corrle rendu. proceedings, yearbook.
2.12 Inflected form: Form undergone by words to marK such distinctions as those of case, gender, number, tense. person, mood or vo
2.13 inhIalism Abbreviated complex term or name made up of the tint letters 01 the term elenierits.
NOTE— An initiahsm forms a sequence which may be pronounced letter by letter. syllabicaly. or both.
2.14 morpheme: Smallest meaningful unf ola language. (ISO 1087:1990)
2.15 prefix: Affix which precedes another stem or another prefix. p50 1067:19901
216 root: Word elemnt which forms the etymological tsels at a famIly of words In one language or In several languages. [ISO 1067:1990)
2.17 section title: Tide speolfic to a section which serves to distinguish one part of a group of related senale having a common 141e.
2.18 serial: Publication, in any medium. issued In successive pasts, usualy having numerical or chronological desIgnations, and Intended to be continued indefinitely.
2.19 stem: Word element which can be used as a term in itsell or as the base ala derIvative. (ISO 1087:19901
220 suffix: Affix which follows a stem or another- suttix. (ISO 1067:1990)
221 tItle Word or phrase, or a group of characters, usualy appwlng on th, document, by which C a convenient to refer to ii. which may be used to identify it, and which often thOugh not Invariably) destingulehes it horn any other cluoument. [Adapted hum ISO 5127/3a): 1981)
222 truncetlon Shortening of a word by the ormasion of two or more continuous letters at the end.
3 Rules fo word abbreviations
The recommended method of abbreviation is by truncation.
Words are also abbreviated by cortiaction accordng to the nature of languages and th. national practices. In particular the suppression of vowels Is frequent.
1 Zeitung — Zig.
2 konyvtsi • kvL
3 karangan • krgo.
Abbreviation tc a single letter is limited to very hequentty used genenc words.
journal • I.
Za’itechrift • Z.
Whether the method of abbreviation ‘a truncation or contraction (or a combination at those methods), at least Iwo letiers shall be dropped from the word to be abbrevialed Words Iron, which only a single letter wo04d be dropped are not abbrevialed
The iuetFid at Indicabiug an abbwviat shal be a full slop (peflod). Abbreviations are normally tolowed by a tul atop. However, It, some applications Fhe full stop may be omitted (see also 4.6)
3.2 DiacritIc marks
Diacritic rnsslta shall be retained in the word abbreviations. For languages where an alternative spelling without dtacntics is also possible, this alternative may be used instead. Diacrds marks occurring in transliterated words shal be retained in ttie abbreviations (see 3,11).
1 mdecine • mOd.
2 Uberwachung Uberwach.
3 Ueberwachung – Uberwad,
4 lurnat • t.
3.3 Artificial words
Arlificial words should be retained as they appear on the publication. However, new word coinages wtid are likely to become an accepted part of the language shou4d be abbreviated.
1 diarnat (not abbrevtatej
2 chernlech (not abbrevialeoJ
3 sharemaiirat • sharemarlt.
4 cyberspace • cyberso.
3.4 Plurals and other inflected forms
An abbreviation for the sirtilar form of a word shall also be used for the plural form, as long as the orthography of the abbreviation Is not affected by the change from singular to plural.
importation — import
importations — mipori. Jahrbuch = Jahib. JahrbUcher • Jahib.
When the method of abbreviation is contraction and if the orthography of the word changes in the plural form. aflecting the spelling of the abbreviation, the atibreviahon of th. plural form may be ddl.rertl from the singular form.
1 coun’y — dry.
coupies = ctfles.
2 nations ned
natianawi — neEx.
The irregutar plural form of a word may be abbreviated even when the smgular form is not abbcovated. provided that more than one letter would be dropped.
child (nOt .bfrevtatedj
diit&en = cId.
Buch (not ab,brevtatedj
Bücher = SUch.
3.4.2 Other inflected forms
The same abbreviation shall be used for all inflected forms of a word
promy*Jennoet’ — prom.
promynnosti = prom.
promySIennoeIe s prom.
126.96.36.199 Append.d article
In languages in which th. definite article forms pest of the word, the same abbreviation shaM be used for the word with an appended article or without one.
188.8.131.52 Grammatical prefixes
fri languages In which the prefixes before nouns or verbs have grammatical function (e.g. Malay and Iridenesian
languages), such prefixe. shall be suppressed or reduced in abbreviations,
1 fapeduas —
2 berwems =
3 k.masyarakatan • kmsyik.
II orthograpnic changes ii the derivative form change the part of the word retained as an abbreviation, the abbreviation for the derivative form shall b ditfemni finni that of the root form
Scotland — Scott.
It the orthographic changes do no affect the abb eviation lor the denvatwe form, the abbreviation for the derivative and root fumfl haII be the ewne.
I physics = phys.
physcal = phys.
2 organizatIon • organ.
oganlzwg — organ.
Tti denvatwe of a word may be abbreviated even when the root fomi is not abbreviated,
Gefatir fnot abbreviated)
gefatirlech — gef*hrl.
A derwative of a word which has accred a tIerent meaning or a c$Ierenf mophofogicaf Structure shalt have a different abbreviation.
in4ormabqu. — inform.
3.6 Semantically unrelated words
Words which are secnanhcally unrelated shall have different abbreviations.
md. ccvr.ct for Industrial, induetne, mdusuy, etc
ar,Con’eCf for Indian, indication, induced, etc.
3.7 Compound words
Each component of a compound word should be abbreviated.
NOTE — H a compound word Is not hyphenated, th components pr.cedlng the final component may be retd in thee tult torm reuived by the national practice for a given language.
Each abbreviated component of a compound word should be foaowed by a tuft stop (period) without a space between the components. However, full slops within the abbreviation, with th exception of the full stop atIr the fin*l component. may be on’tled as determined by the requirements of national practice.
1 t-orsctiungslechnologie — Forsch.lectiriol.
2 nlomiatiedossaer • mt.doss.
3 gazdasagstatiSztilca • gazcfstat.
Hyphens appearing m compound words shall be retained.
I blo-acousbos — Mo-accusE.
2 mitdcln.radiolagu. a rnód..radaol.
3 technes.ch-lndustnell = di.md.
3.8 Names of persons
The names of persons shall not be abbreviated. Adiectivee formed from names of persons may be abbreviated by reducing the edØct.val word to lb. name from which it was dend.
Mozart (not abtre%Iatedj
mozarllen = mozart.
3.9 Names of corporate bodies
Names of corporate bodies occurflng within titles of pubicaltons shall be breviaIed In accordance with the rules for word abbreviations. Whore national or international practice commonly uses en acronym rather than the full or partial n.m. of a corporate body, tha acronym may be used instead of the abbreviated form of name.
1 Te: Proceedings of the international Seed Testing Association
Abbreviated title: Proc. a Seed Test. Assoc.
2 Title: The ljrised Nations disarmament yearbook
Abbreviated title: U.N. disarm yearb.
3.10 Place names
Th. names of geographical locations (i.e. town, city. state. province or country) may be abbre vialed, The names of cli.. and towns should be abbreviated when they are Important places or are frequently used In
titles, or when the names end I suffixes lde -burgh. ‘ton, .ville, etc.
I Frtog • Frlbg.
2 Newvodi • N.Y.
3 Southampton • Soampt.
Words appearing in non-Latw alphabets. such as Cynhic and Greek. shall be transliterated according to the appropriate International Slandasds for the purpose of international communication. Diacritics occurring In the transliterated words shell be retained In the abbreviations (see also 3.2).
upcresia — upör.
5uiasriij • suias.
3.12 Substitution of characters
The abbreviation cf a word shah not contain any characters not present In the word itself.
pener corrac pram.
4 Rules for title abbreviations
4.1 Word order
The order of the abbreviated words shall follow the order of the words as they appear in the title.
4.2 Singl. word titles
Titles consishng of a single word. exclusive of an rticte or preposition, shall not be abbreviated,
Abbreviated title: hjefrologia
2 idle: Sans front Ere
Abbreviated title: Sans fronbére
3 Title: The Mastrsle
Abbreviated title: Magistrate
lithe title consists of one word quatified by piece (or place and date) or edition stalen,erit. the titI word shall not be abbreviated while the qualifying element should be abbrevIated (see 49).
1 Tide: Forum (Düsseldorf)
Abbreviated title: Forum (f)U%saId)
2 Title: Conwrninlcatlon (New York. N V.)
Abbreviated title: Communication (N. V.. N. V.)
lithe title consists of one word followed by a generic term denoting a pert, section, series or supplement, the title shall not be abbreviated while the generic term should be abbreviated.
4.3 ArtIcles, conjunctions and prepositions
Arhcles. conjunctions and prepositions shalt b. omitted from tide abbreviahons with the exception of preposibons and articles that we inlepai prt of personal names. place names or locutions such as n vlvo and vipo. or where the sfficture of the language or nationai practice prevent these words from being omitted.
1 Title: The New Hunganan Querteity
Abbr.viated tide: New Hung 0.
2 Idle: Los Alamos science
Abbreviated tidi: Los Alamos ad.
3 Title: Journal of in vitro forlitizatlon and .rnbryo transfer
Abbreviated tide: J. In vitro filth, .ntyo tmnsf.
Prepositions occurring at the beginning of a title should be refawwd.
Tide: Voni Aberibergec Land Abbreviated Idle: Vom Abenb. Land
Title; Vera recatlon pernieriente
Abbreviated tale: V.rs öduc perm.
4.4 Acronyms, group. of Initials, l.tt.r designators
Acronyms, Mialisms or latter designators in * litle shall he relalned in the abbreviated tale
I Tide: AEGJ.dtteilungen
Abbreviated title: AEG.h5tt.
2 Tide: Revue CETHEDEC
Abbreviated tide: Rev. CETHEDEC
The first lefle uf the rt element uf 11w tide abbieveition shall be capitalized. Cepilelizebon of the remaining
•lements ray blow national practic. or the reqLwrnents of a specitic application.
Tide: Archives of infernal rnedsine Abbreviated tide: A,ch intern med.
Arch. intern. Med.
Ardi lntern Med.
ARCH. INTERN MED.
The punctuation which occurs in the lull title shall be retained in the abbreviated title with Ihe excepbon of commas and ful stops (periods); commas shal be omitted in the abbreviated title and full slops shall be replaced by commas. However, full stops may e retained WI tn. abbreviated title when they are uSed wIth acronyms, mitalisms, ordinal nurbbers or dependent title deegnatsone,
Full stops shall only be uaed to indicate en abbreviation, Full stops may be omitted from abbreviated words in applications that require hmited use of punctuation.
1 rtt. Acta rn.rieralogica. petrografr.*
Abbreviated tide. Acts mineraL petrog.
Title: Soviet physics. Technical physics
Abbreviated title. Sov phys., Tech. phys.
Title: E.SA bulletin
Abbreviated title E.S.A. bull.
Title: Mr. Aodge?s journal
Abbreviated title: Mr Rodgers j.
The ttvee dots or mart of omission (…) ocasnmg in a full title shall be omitted in the abbreviated tllle
Title: Proceedings of ihe … annual meeting of the Acadian Enlomological Society Abbreviated title: Proc. annu. meet Median Erdomol. Soc.
4.7 SpecIal characters and symbols
Special characters or symbols appearing in the original title shall be retained unchanged in the titl, abbreviation, eicep the ampersand & and the plus Si which shall be omitted when they are used for the coriunction “aid. However, the ampersand and plus sign shall be retained when they form an integral part of an acronym or inliabsin.
Title: Europe on $ … a day Abbreviated title: Eur. $ day
The: Melall-Reinigung + Vortehandlurig Abbreviated title: MeL .Reirwg. Vorbehandl.
Title: ComPuter 6. control abstracts Abbreviated title: Comput. control absir.
Tate: AT&T Technical Journal Abbreviated title: AT$T TechJ.
4,8 Sections and series
When two or mOre serial publications have a common title which is distinguished by the addition of a nurrer. letter o section title, the disbngsliitig features shall be included in the abbreviated title. AbbreviatIons ci generic temis
such as section. serm. etc, should orgy be retained ii the tide abbreviation if they are required for identification purposes.
Tide: Annales scientifiques do runiversito do Besançon. Góologie Abbreviated title Ann, a. Urvv. osarigon, Gesi.
Tide: Journal Cl bo4any. Section A Abbreviated tide: J. bot. Sect. A J. bot.. A
An abbreviation for the dependent title Is requ Wed m addition to thaI Cl the common title. even when the common tide is distinguished by a nurrer or letter as well,
Title Journal of polymer science Part A.l, Polymer chemisity
Abbreviated title: J. polyrn- scL A-I, Polym. chem.
4.9 DistinctIon and clarification
Abbreviated titles are considered Identical when they are composed of the same tellers or characters irrespective 01 diacritics or other pictuation.
Identical abbreviated tides should be distingiashed by adding a quaIEtt4ng .lament In prenthoses. place (lawn or city); place and date. edition; or. these are not sufficient, other quaidying irdormation. The qualifying element should ti. abbrvlated.
r.tte. Experience et lnnovahons en education
Experiencias . innovaciones en educaciom
Experiments and innovations en education
Abbreviated tides: Exp. eviov. êduc. (Ed. fr.)
Exp. eviov. educ (Ed. esp.)
Exp. rnov. educ. (Engl. ed.)
ISO 4:1997 download.Information and documentation — Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications.